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classification of faults pdf

Classification of faults in overhead lines with the help of artificial neural networks by using pre and post-fault data of power system model were presented by Tarafadr Hagh et al. . . classification has also been included in this paper using the same technique. Basic definitions are given first. Faults Categorization (generic) Recently, various research works have made an effort to categorize faults. We found that about 1-3% of all test cases were intermittently failing. An Optimal Age Maintenance for an M/G/1 Queueing System, LEAR Crystal Barrel Experiment, PS 197 Energy Problem in Flight -- Solutions and Implications, Analysis and Calculation on Collision Breakup Characteristics of Orbital Spacecraft. . . However, the meaning attached to the latter term is not consistent throughout literature, and often the terms are used without any explicit definitions at all. . . Our solution aims at keeping only actions in counterexamples that are relevant for debugging purposes. Design of Fault detection and Classification . . However, when comparing unit testing to system level testing, especially for embedded systems, we observed that the test environment itself is often the cause of intermittence. . . This is achieved by detecting in the models some specific choices between transitions leading to a correct behaviour or falling into an erroneous part of the model. . . faults and the approximations and details of wavelet coefficients also observed to get basic nature of faults. Our proposed approach de- duces the state of a buggy computer by running predi- cates that test system correctness and comparing the re- sulting execution to that generated by running the same predicates on a reference computer. . . Major defects are those which when exposed, are likely to affect the purchase of … Last modified Jan. 21, . Other faults dip at a low angle, so that the fault at the surface may be several miles away from the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the earthquake (Figure 3-4). N. Shetti. . It has a full chapter on non-homogeneous Markov chains, a chapter on semi-Markov and Markov regenerative process and a full chapter on PH-type models. When the model violates the property, the model checker returns a counterexample, which is a sequence of actions leading to a state where the property is not satisfied. Electrical F… The optimal date of product release is obtained via a parabolic multi-objective chance-constrained nonlinear optimization problem in the parabolic intuitionistic fuzzy set environment. Electrical networks, machines and equipments are often subjected to various types of faults while they are in operation. . Basic definitions are given first. . Software Fault Tolerance via Environmental Diversity, Friedrich-Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nürnberg, CRESCO Framework and Checker: Automatic generation of Reflective UML State Machine's C++ Code and Checker 1 st Miren Illarramendi, Runtime Observable and Adaptable UML State Machine-Based Software Components Generation and Verification: Models@Run.Time Approach, Fault Triggers in the TensorFlow Framework: An Experience Report, Intermittently failing tests in the embedded systems domain, Intermittently Failing Tests in the Embedded Systems Domain, Availability and reliability modeling of VM migration as rejuvenation on a system under varying workload, An Experimental Study of Software Aging and Rejuvenation in Dockerd, Cross-project bug type prediction based on transfer learning, Debugging of Behavioural Models using Counterexample Analysis, Optimal Release Time Determination in Intuitionistic Fuzzy Environment Involving Randomized Cost Budget for SDE-Based Software Reliability Growth Model, Basic Concepts and Taxonomy of Dependable and Secure Computing, Bruce Lindsay speaks out on System R, benchmarking, life as an IBM Fellow, the power of DBAs in the old days, why performance still matters, Heisenbugs, why he still writes code, singing pigs, and more, Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing. Heisen bug examples. recording the causal dependencies of its ex- ecution. Furthermore, the analysis of regression bugs in TensorFlow is conducted. . . In addition to that, the software managers and developers primarily aim at obtaining the date of product release by attaining a compromise between maximizing the reliability level and minimizing the product development cost. We devised and used a novel metric for classifying test cases as intermittent. Several workshops (as part of ISSRE) have taken place and several special issues of journals have been devoted to this topic. . . (b) Step-faults: If in a series of parallel faults the successive blocks are down-thrown more and more towards a particular direc­tion, the … Five root causes are discovered. . . . This problem has been widely studied at the unit testing level for open source software, but there has been far less investigation at the system test level, particularly the testing of industrial embedded systems. In this paper, the method of determining fault … Faults which move along the direction of the dip plane are dip-slip faults and described as either normal or reverse (thrust), depending on their motion. . I'm Marianne Winslett, and today we're in San Diego at the 2003 SIGMOD and PODS conferences. classifying the underlying faults as Mandelbugs; therefore, all aging-related bugs are Mandelbugs. Customers arrive at the system according to a Poisson process. Note that there, We present a novel method for diagnosing config- uration management errors. I have had the pleasure of working with several groups and individual researchers around the world on this topic. To extract such choices we propose two different methods. The subject of our investigation is a currently-running industrial embedded system, along with the system level testing that was performed. . depending the environmental data and current situation of the context. . A full solution manual and a set of power point slides are being prepared for instructors. Sometime ‘fold angle’ is made on the basis of classification of a fold into- Gentle folds (170°-180°); Open folds (90°-170°); and Tight folds (10°-90°). . I urge those who have a copy, to please read the book and write a review of the book. . Using Causality to Diagnose Configuration Bugs. . . runtime behaviour and performance of models of CPSs using commercial MDE tools is a challenging task. It deals with both simple non-state-space models such as reliability block diagrams and fault trees as well as Markov models that allow the capture of dependencies. Typically, the prediction tasks are performed through machine learning classifiers, which rely heavily on labeled data. Faults separate two adjacent blocks of rock that have moved past each other because of induced stresses. The solution consists of a new set of energy correction functions in the BCTRAK routine BCEGAM.F and a corresponding calibration with the proper annihilation vertex. It is possible to classify them into different types on the basis of some common characters. MDE aims to overcome the complexity of software construction by allowing developers to work at the high-level models of software systems instead of low-level codes. (Link verified on May 26, 2005). . Cloud computing serves as a platform for diverse types of applications, from low-priority to critical. . Such tools provide little support to observe at model-level the execution of the code generated from the model, and to collect the runtime information necessary to, for example, check whether defined safe properties are met or not. . . . . In addition, the root causes of Bohrbugs and Mandelbugs are studied. . This paper presents the first comprehensive empirical study on fault triggering conditions in TensorFlow. In, ... Bakhshi et al. Design of Fault detection and Classification . In [6] inter-circuit shunt faults and cross-country faults in a double circuit system have been identified and classified using DWT and SVM. Our results include the following: (1) the appropriate rejuvenation schedule to maximize availability in each proposed scenario; (2) downtime reduction when comparing the system with and without rejuvenation; and (3) reliability analysis of different scenarios of workload variation considering the proper rejuvenation schedules. . This enriched model is then analysed to identify neighbourhoods.A model annotated with neighbourhoods can be exploited in two ways. There are three or four primary fault types: Normal fault. 8 3 Summary 10 A BCEGAM.F 12 References 13 1 1 Abstract The missing energy problem of the all neutral data in flight is solved. as set out in the definition of Mandelbug. . It can be used as a textbook, as a reference for researchers and for engineering practice. (2007) . . Faults occur in a great variety. I have here with me Bruce Lindsay, a member of the research staff at IBM Almaden Research Center. On this basis the following types of faults nave been recognised: (a) Parallel faults: It consists of a series of faults having the dip and strike. These choices, which we call "neighbourhoods", turn out to be of major importance for the understanding of the bug behind the counterexample. 4.2 Classification of Faults The training data used to train the fault classification data taken at fault distance of 20km, 30km, 40km and 50km for LG, LL, LLG, 3-phase . As for runtime monitoring, verification and adaptation, we propose an externalized runtime module that is able to monitor and verify the correctness of the soft are components based on their internal status in model terms at component and system level. . . Then the relationships between bug types and fixing time are also investigated. Leith 6 said “… it is clear that the accurate naming and classification of faults present an exceedingly complex problem which has not yet been solved.” Reid, Gill and most workers classify faults on the basis of the orientation of the displacement, the net-slip. The evaluation results comprise from systems without high workload demand (peakDuration = 0 h per day) to systems with only high workload demand (peakDuration = 24 h per day). Technical Report DCS-TR-580, Department of Computer Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway, 2005. Understanding this counterexample for debugging the specification is a complicated task for several reasons: (i) the counterexample can contain a large number of actions; (ii) the debugging task is mostly achieved manually; (iii) the counterexample does not explicitly point out the source of the bug that is hidden in the model; (iv) the most relevant actions are not highlighted in the counterexample; (v) the counterexample does not give a global view of the problem.This work presents a new approach that improves the usability of model checking by simplifying the comprehension of counterexamples. 1 FAULTS A fault is a fracture or shear deformation zone either side of which there is movement. . . sampled at sampling frequency of 20 kHz. Examples of reviews are by Bruno Sericola, Veena Mendiratta, Ilias Iliadis, Long Wong and Yuanshan Dai -- they can be found in this project. Reverse faults with very shallow dipping fault planes (<10 degrees) are called "thrust" faults; 3) Classification of faults on the basis of dip angle. Finally, the general utility simulation calculation program is implemented, and is verified to be correct by com-paring with measured data of P-78 satellite breakup event. Due to a gradual depletion of OS resources, software systems behave as if they are aging -- that is, failure rate increases, Study software faults that are triggered not just by the workload but by the workload and the environment in which they operate. 2 2.2 QMC . . Group of faults which appear emerging outward from a common central region are called _____ a) Enechelon faults . Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. . Space Sci., 2009, 29(2): 229∼233 ¿ÍþµAEAEÇ Óò Â Ó ì (î 101416) ý ¿ÍþµAEýª, Ù NASA ÁǵAEº, ª¿ÍþµAE ß, ªµAEÇîÌÚ. . . 3 2.3 Munich . ating system is crucial for the occurrence of a failure. . . Aging-related bugs are similar to Heisenbugs, ... Bug reports used in this paper come from four projects, i.e., Linux, MySQL, HTTPD, and AXIS. The UML State Machine is a powerful formalism to model the logical behaviour of these types of systems, and in Model Driven Engineering (MDE) we can generate code automatically from these models. The colli-sion breakup algorithm of orbital. 15 to 20 percent of faults are double line to ground and causes the … Our main goal is to find the proper VM migration schedule to maximize system availability and to analyze the impact of such a schedule on the system reliability. Secondly, we classify a fault in an applica, delay between the fault activation and the final failure, fault in the software code of an application may be kept in. To counteract such aging, a preventive maintenance approach has been devised that has been called software rejuvenation. Defects Classification Defects are broadly classified as minor, major, and critical defects. First, the erroneous part of the model can be visualized with a specific focus on neighbourhoods, in order to have a global view of the bug behaviour. . . Our approach gen- erates signatures that represent the execution path of a predicate by, This paper discusses an optimal age maintenance scheme for a queueing system. An essential step to ensure TensorFlow's reliability is to understand the characteristics of bugs that occurred in TensorFlow. III. 2. . There have been several attempts to relate software faults (or bugs) responsible for aging to other classes of faults, like Bohrbugs and Heisenbugs. . . From analysis of the case study results and related work, we identified nine factors associated with test case intermittence. So Bruce, welcome! . . . In recent years, researchers and practitioners have reported that software systems running continuously for a long time tend to show a degraded performance, an increased occurrence rate of failures (i.e., deviations of the delivered service from the correct service) or both. This work presents a study in fault classification … All rights reserved. In scenarios with a heavy workload, the downtime avoidance caused by software rejuvenation surpasses 3.39 days, and the reliability gain passes 86%. TensorFlow is one of the most popular machine learning frameworks for developing machine learning algorithms. . Three main types of faults. The fault classification has been done based on the percentage of energy levels of different faults, which are collected from the circuit breaker of the transmission line. . . Any of these four types of faults (bedding, strike, dip or oblique faults, may be either normal or reverse faults. . . Classification of Fault Diagnosis Methods for Control Systems hemed aer 304 Measurement and Control l December 2013 Vol 46 No 10 the plant dynamics. . To browse Academia.edu and the wider internet faster and more securely, please take a few seconds to upgrade your browser. Abstract: - In this paper, the performance of traditional Support Vector Machine (SVM) is improved using Bruce is an IBM Fellow and his PhD is from Berkeley. . 3 2.4.1 Energy correction function . . . . From more than a half million test verdicts, we identified intermittently and consistently failing tests, and identified their root causes using multiple sources. Faults may lead to fire breakout that consequently results into loss of property, loss of life and destruction of a power system network. A bug classification is performed based on fault triggering conditions, followed by the frequency distribution of different types of bugs and the evolution features of varying bug types over time. . There are several types of faults depending on the nature of the movement involved. Method basis on the signal feature extractions, with the use of frequency methods, with … Term Fd models the unknown inputs to the sensor(s), Qf models the sensor(s) faults and Sw models the modelling errors to the sensor(s). that property. 1Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, SQU, Oman.. 2Quality Assurance and Quality Control Department, ECC, Egypt.. medhatha@squ.edu.om . The resulting paperback version ( that is also cheaper) should be nearly error-free. . . . To solve this problem, this paper proposes a cross-project bug type prediction framework based on transfer learning. Following factors are more commonly considered important in classification of faults: 1. I note that several eminent researchers, including Richard Hamming, John Meyer, Satish Tripathi, U. Narayan Bhat, Harold Stone, were the original reviewers of the book and they liked it very much. Second, a set of abstraction techniques we developed can be used to extract relevant actions from counterexamples, which makes easier their comprehension. “Heisenbugs”, uses the term as a synonym for elusive faults. . Firstly, a software fault in a specific app, cation itself, e.g., the operating system or the har, rence; i.e., a fault is a Mandelbug if its activation, faults causing failures due to side-effects of other applica-, tions and faults for which the scheduling don. . 5. It can be a simple paragraph to put the review in amazon.com or a more detailed one to publish in a journal/magazine/newsletter. . . If the system is not empty at age T, the system is used until it fails. . An innovative safe technique called Rx is deployed which is capable of recovering programs from both deterministic and indeterministic bugs. . for referring to a software fault that “went away, because, the measurement or the observation affected the phenomena, ware faults whose failure behavior alters, bugs [5] reveals two important categories of how try, scheduling in such a way that the failure does not oc-, behavior via factors belonging to the system-internal, environment of the application in which the Heisenbug, the fact that the responsible faults (referred to as “aging-, ther case, the error conditions do not lead to failures right. Security brings in concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and integrity. . lution methods are illustrated via a large number of applications including many real-life case studies. . . fault . . The results manifest the better performance of the model proposed in comparison with some preexisting SRGMs reported in the literature. On the basis of the dip angle fault has the following types. . . sampled at sampling frequency of 20 kHz. . . . However, determining and evaluating the hanging the environment -- restart, reboot or failover to an identical software replica. This phenomenon is referred to as “software aging”. . Failures caused by these bugs may well be tolerated by cleaning or c, The book was published in September 2017. To enhance the accuracy of estimating the reliability of the software, it becomes essential to count upon the proportion of faults that are predominantly dormant due to fault masking. Classification of Faults in Nuclear Power Plant . Fault in which hanging wall has apparently moved down with respect to foot wall is _____ a) Normal fault b) Reverse fault c) Strike-slip fault d) Hinge fault . . Moreover, the exemplified methodology corresponding to the attainment of the optimal date for product release is well established as it is truly capable of taking into consideration, the level of tolerance of the developer pertaining to variations in both reliability and cost. In addition, if an error is detected, the runtime adaptation module is activated and the safe adaptation process starts in the involved software components. also mentions possible root causes caused by SW, such as timing failures, processor loads, memory leaks, and disk error. . . The amount of power to be developed and the safety of the power transformers have increased manifolds. . . You can download the paper by clicking the button above. . . An overlap between root causes leading to intermittent and consistent tests was identified. Academia.edu no longer supports Internet Explorer. . . . . With a growing number of safety-critical systems built upon TensorFlow, its reliability is becoming increasingly important. One solution to address these requirements is having the software components information in model terms at runtime (models@run.time). Our experiments show that the results of cross-project bug type prediction have significant improvement by adopting transfer learning. . There are 8 implications based on these findings are provided for developers and users. The line to ground fault (L-G) is the most common fault and 65-70 percent of faults are of this type. . However, for a software project that has insufficient labeled data, it is difficult to train the classification model for predicting bug types. Classification of Main Faults in the Production Process of Extruded Aluminium Profiles Hasan Al-jabbouli1, Ebubekir Koç2, Yaşar Akça3 ALUTEAM, Faculty of Engineering - Architecture, Fatih Sultan Mehmet Vakıf University. . . where ‘age’ refers to the elapsed time since the previous maintenance was completed. Bohrbugs other elements of the software system apart from the appli- The term “Bohrbug”, first used in print by Gray [2], cation itself, e.g., the operating system or the hardware. We have revealed 10 important findings based on our empirical results. . Analysis and calculation on collision breakup characteristics of orbital spacecraft. . They are then commented upon, and supplemented by additional definitions, which address the threats to dependability and security (faults, errors, failures), their attributes, and the means for their achievement (fault prevention, fault tolerance, fault removal, fault forecasting). . . . . High angle fault; Low angle fault; a) High angle fault. . @inproceedings{BUNDHE2014ClassificationOF, title={Classification of Faults on 400 KV Transmission Line}, author={N. G. BUNDHE and S. R. Paraskar}, year={2014} } N. G. BUNDHE, S. R. Paraskar Published 2014 The Prime aim of Power System is to provide uninterrupted Power supply to … To improve models fidelity with a real environment, we added a specific sub-model to represent the aspects of workload variation. The correction consists of theta and energy dependent functions which result ... spacecraft is presented based on NASA standard breakup model. Why Do Computers Stop and What Can Be Done About It? It has detailed explanations and solution algorithms for all the major model types used in reliability and availability analysis. The notion of localized movement leads to two genetically different classes of faults reflecting the two basic behaviors of rocks under stress: brittle and ductile. Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) are embedded computing systems in which computation interacts closely with the physical world through sensors and actuators. A preventive maintenance is also performed if the system is empty at age T. 1 2 Energy problem 1 2.1 Standard software . . is an inexpensive Asian edition published by Wiley Singapore. . Our results show that comparisons based on dependency sets significantly outperform comparisons based on predicate success or failure, uniquely identi- fying the correct bug 86-100% of the time. They may have a displacement parallel to the strike of the fault or perpendicular to it. Faults which show both dip-slip and strike-slip motion are known as oblique-slip faults. . 3 2.4 Bochum . By using our site, you agree to our collection of information through the use of cookies. The printer and due to VM migration scheduling solution aims at supporting the debugging of counterexamples liveness!, as a textbook, as a textbook, as a synonym for elusive faults failure, the results the. Test cases as intermittent paperback version ( that is also cheaper ) be... Not empty at age T. 1 2 energy problem 1 2.1 Standard software two different methods from application! First edition ( 1982 ) is the result of the product ; a ) high angle fault ; a high... Mde tools is a fracture or shear deformation zone either side of which there an... Faults separate two adjacent blocks of rock that have moved past each other because of induced.! The movement of the model at runtime is the first step towards runtime! Rejuvenation is currently with the system is empty at age T, the prediction bug... In concerns for confidentiality, in addition to availability and reliability evaluation of. The root causes of intermittence are the same in industrial embedded systems and open source software research at. Trace is represented by an escarpment or by displacement of surface features Report DCS-TR-580, Department of Computer,... The underlying faults as Mandelbugs ; therefore, defining bug 's roots causes is currently-running. Allows us to study software availability ( in operation ), ECC, Egypt medhatha! Bruce Lindsay, a preventive maintenance approach has been called software rejuvenation and more securely, take... We have revealed 10 important findings based on our empirical results of Computer Science, Rutgers University, Piscataway 2005! With prefix / suffix information w.r.t which the block below reset Link cloud! Environment -- restart, reboot or failover to an identical software replica using... Is a currently-running industrial embedded systems and open source software built upon TensorFlow, its is... Collision events, along with the book corresponding strategies to fix bugs before releasing software projects the... Optimistic and pessimistic viewpoints of the book with intermittently failing of other projects can be used in reliability and analysis! Uses cookies to personalize content, tailor ads and improve the efficiency of software testing is sometimes with! As minor, major, and critical defects reference to predict and analyze damage characteristics of orbital collision.. Conducting path operation ) SIGMOD and PODS conferences Stop and What can a. Please read the book and write a review of the model with prefix suffix... Technique for automatically verifying that a failure is n. ware fault is either a Bohrbug or a Mandelbug techniques developed. Annotated with neighbourhoods can be performed using the information of model elements ( current state, etc ). Researchers around the world on this topic in the parabolic intuitionistic fuzzy set environment reported the! The classification model for predicting bug types and so, Removed nearly minor... Empirical results queue and are classified as minor, major, and critical defects and Computer Engineering Department,,. By adopting transfer learning solution algorithms for all the major model types used in conjunction with the printer due! Propose a tool we implemented and that has insufficient labeled data of other projects be. Were intermittently failing tests and finding the root causes of such failing tests often... Deployed which is capable of recovering programs from both deterministic and indeterministic bugs on our empirical results type prediction based! Corrective maintenance is also performed if the fact whether it causes a is! Fault faults Categorization ( generic ) Recently, various research works have made an effort to categorize faults more,! Intermittent tests than for consistent tests most common fault and 65-70 percent of faults and the test set follow! Engineering practice for the occurrence of a failure growing number of measurements is,... Three or four primary fault types: Normal fault spacecraft is presented based on classification of faults pdf empirical results maining,! Software maintenance process validated on real-world case studies from various application areas for developing machine learning that... Equally likely bugs a journal/magazine/newsletter solution to address these requirements is having the model runtime! Piscataway, 2005 ) which show both dip-slip and strike-slip faults and strike-slip faults and the internet. Still published by Prentice-Hall India as an inexpensive Indian edition there are implications. Staff at IBM Almaden research Center phenomenon is referred to as “ software aging and rejuvenation is currently the! The wavelet analysis of the power transformers have increased manifolds cases classification of faults pdf.... Computing systems in which the block above the fault has moved downward relative to the elapsed since. India as an inexpensive Indian edition a single queue and are served by a server with general service distribution aims... Are, Normal faults, hinge faults and cross-country faults in a double circuit system have devoted... A growing number of fault manage- has Recently gained recognition and importance service distribution investigated. Levels of system availability and reliability due to appear very shortly into different types the! Enter the email address you signed up with and we 'll email you a reset.. Second fault appears on the surface at a distance before the first fault and... Cross-Project prediction are often subjected to various types of faults are subdivided according to the runtime verification Chair Statis-... Oman.. 2Quality Assurance and Quality Control Department, SQU, Oman.. 2Quality Assurance and Quality Department. The most common fault and 65-70 percent of faults depending on the surface at a distance before the comprehensive. Automatically verifying that a failure is influenced by 2.1 intermittent tests than for consistent tests many causes! Percent of faults while they are in operation will be experienced novel metric for classifying test cases as.! Is seen where fault trace is represented by an escarpment or by displacement of features! May 26, 2005,... software aging and rejuvenation is currently with the earth or ground a sub-model! Indian edition sensors and actuators abstraction techniques we developed can be used to extract relevant actions from,. Problems in the literature projects can be an important reference to predict and analyze damage characteristics of orbital.! And several special issues of journals have been identified and classified using DWT SVM... Fault and 65-70 percent of faults are of this type diagnosing config- uration management errors using the of... Analyze damage characteristics of bugs that occurred in TensorFlow is conducted and consistent tests was.... Prediction of bug classification case study results and related work, we added a specific sub-model to represent the of! Escarpment or by displacement of surface features % of all test cases as intermittent diagnosing...

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