approaches to creativity in psychology
For example, in Slepian and Ambady (2012), participants were asked to terminate their attempt if they could not produce a solution to a Remote Associates Test (RAT; REF) problem within 5 seconds, and this was done to “ensure that answers were discovered by connecting remotely associated concepts rather than by brute-force searching (see Dorfman, Shames, & Kihlstrom, 1996; Slepian, Weisbuch, Rutchick, Newman, & Ambady, 2010)” (p. 4). Jausovec (1989), comparing the effects of positive, negative and neutral mood on analogical transfer in insight problems, reported a complex set of findings. [Image: Linus Bohman]. Much of the research devoted to creativity during the 1950s and 1960s was focused on variables which had ominous implications for dominant attitudes in psychology and the society. People often have difficulty describing where their creative ideas came from. (2015) also deeply considered the connections between creativity theories that are dual-process, and in more general dual-process theories of cognition. To facilitate this vision, and to achieve the goals laid out at the outset of this chapter, we will next review the way that autonomy and control are conceptualized and empirically studied across different areas of cognitive research. For example, what word can be associated with the words “widow, bite, monkey”? Over the past 35 years, examination of social and environmental influences on creativity has become increasingly vigorous, with broad implications for the psychology of human performance, and with applications to education, business, and beyond. In this chapter, we review many different ways of measuring creativity. The first, selective encoding, involves distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information. Wiley and Jarosz (2012) agree that creative problem-solving requires a mixture of “non-goal-directed processes and more controlled, attention-demanding processes” (p. 260) and call for “a dual-process model of problem solving that incorporates both analytic and nonanalytic processes” (p. 261). Despite the well-developed body of research that has been amassed on autonomous processes in creativity, there remain threads of research that connect back to the notion that intelligence and executive functions, which include inhibition, interference control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility (see Diamond, 2013), are indeed important for creative thought. We will refer back to this model later in this chapter when discussing organizational climate features. Two studies were conducted in which participants' scores on divergent thinking tests were analyzed as a function of performance on a number of measures of executive function (including broad retrieval ability and general fluid intelligence) and answers to a verbal fluency task, in which semantic distance served as a measure of associative ability. In fact, Baer (1994a, 1994b, 1994c)1994a1994b1994c provided convincing evidence that creativity is not only content specific but is also task specific within content areas. Even the author of the paper arguing for domain generality acknowledged that the tide had turned in favor of a domain-specific view: Recent observers of the theoretical (Csikszentmihalyi, 1988) and empirical (Gardner, 1993; Runco, 1989; Sternberg & Lubart, 1995) creativity literature could reasonably assume that the debate is settled in favor of content specificity. Because creative ideas are so special, creators who come up with the best ideas are often highly rewarded with fame, fortune, or both. Geir Kaufmann, in The International Handbook on Innovation, 2003. There has been one outstanding edited book on the topic—Animal Innovation by Simon Reader and Kevin Laland (Oxford University Press, 2003)—but it was, with some exceptions, focused on work by animal researchers. Multivariate structural equation models showed unique contributions of both the associative and executive measures to creativity, demonstrating that both types of processes are important in predicting the ability to generate novel ideas. In one study, people were asked to pick their best responses to a similar divergent-thinking task, and then examined whether they were more likely to choose responses that outside raters considered creative. Examples of his components of creativity include Guilford's divergent thinking components (fluency, flexibility, and originality), and being open to new experiences, curious, willing to take risks, and sensitive to aesthetic characteristics. To name just a few, we highlight KEYS (Amabile, et al., 1996); the Team Climate for Innovation (TCI; Anderson & West, 1998; West & Farr, 1989); the Siegal Scale of Support for Innovation (SSSI; Siegel & Kaemmerer, 1978), and the Creative Climate Questionnaire (CCQ, Ekvall, 1996). In other words, intrinsic motivation determines the extent to which domain relevant skills and creativity-relevant skills will be fully and appropriately applied towards successful creative performance. Main article: creativity techniques Daniel Pink, in his 2005 book A Whole New Mind, repeating arguments posed throughout the 20th century, argues that we are entering a new age where creativity is becoming increasingly important. Wertheimer, 1958). West, Claudia A. Sacramento, in Handbook of Organizational Creativity, 2012. Klein, 1997, Dorfman, Shames, & Kihlstrom, 1996; Slepian, Weisbuch, Rutchick, Newman, & Ambady, 2010, Kounios & Beeman, 2014; Chein & Weisberg, 2014, Barr, Pennycook, Stolz, and Fugelsang (2015a), Aiello, Jarosz, Cushen, & Wiley, 2012; Ansburg & Hill, 2003; Baird et al., 2012; Bowden, Jung-Beeman, Fleck, & Kounios, 2005; Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Kim, Hasher, & Zacks, 2007; Kounios et al., 2006; Reverberi, Toraldo, D'Agostini, & Skrap, 2005; Schooler, Ohlsson, & Brooks, 1993; Sio & Ormerod, 2009; Wieth & Zacks, 2011; Wiley & Jarosz, 2012; Zhong, Dijksterhuis, & Galinsky, 2008. In addition, they argue that this interaction between person and situation is repeated at each level of analysis: group creativity is a function of individual creative inputs plus the interaction between the individuals involved in the composition of the group, group characteristics (e.g., size), group processes (e.g., conflict), and contextual influences (e.g., the larger organization, task characteristics). (p. 16). Moreover, they complement each other in accounting for the more proximal team climate and the more distal organizational climate influences. In relation to the global organizational environment, James and his colleagues (James & James, 1989) describe four dimensions of global organizational climate, which have been identified across a number of different work contexts: role stress and lack of harmony (including role ambiguity, conflict and overload, subunit conflict, lack of organizational identification, and lack of management concern and awareness). The importance of context was further stressed by Woodman, Sawyer and Griffin (1993). Most of the research that was conducted within this framework aimed to identify personality characteristics associated with creativity in different domains (e.g., Barron & Harrington, 1981; James & Asmus, 2000; MacKinnon, 1962). Their review showed that much of the historical theorization of dual-processes in creativity research has centered upon the distinction between generation and evaluation, rather than autonomy and control. General, domain-transcending theories – if true – would have far greater power than domain specific theories that account only for creativity in a limited content domain. Intelligence contributes using three elements drawn from Sternberg's triarchic theory (later expanded into the theory of successful intelligence). The everyday expression of creativity often takes the form of trying out a new approach to a familiar dilemma. Even if we keep strictly within the specific task domain of creative problem-solving, however, several findings anomalous to the positive mood-enhance-creativity theory have been reported. The Blind-Variation-and-Selective-Retention model of Campbell (1960), Simonton's (1999) Darwinian theory of creativity, Finke, Ward, and Smith's (1992) Genoplore model, and Howard-Jones’ (2002) dual-state model of creative thought all articulate the distinction between generating ideas and evaluating them, and the importance of this back and forth in creativity. In one task, a facilitating effect of positive mood on an analogical transfer task was obtained. Introduction. job challenge and autonomy (as well as job importance), leadership facilitation and support (including leader trust, support, goal facilitation and interaction facilitation, and psychological and hierarchical influence), and. In addition, the three attributes should have a zero point, that is, it should be possible to speak of an idea lacking any originality, usefulness, or surprise whatsoever. In the meantime, both views will continue to claim adherents among researchers and theorists. Creativity happens when someone comes up with a creative idea. Similarly, domain specificity of creativity means that creativity testing as currently practiced is necessarily inadequate and of limited validity. Although psychologists have offered several definitions of creativity (Plucker, Beghetto, & Dow, 2004; Runco & Jaeger, 2012), probably the best definition is the one recently adapted from the three criteria that the U.S. Patent Office uses to decide whether an invention can receive patent protection (Simonton, 2012). Moving from the implications of domain specificity for creativity theory to its implications for creativity testing, a domain specific understanding of creativity provides a very direct challenge to existing notions of how to test creativity. Schneider (1990) defined climate as employees’: “perceptions of the events, practices, and procedures and the kinds of behavior that are rewarded, supported, and expected in a setting” (p. 384). The first is the Remote Associates Test, or RAT, that was introduced by Mednick (1962). Many employers value creative thinkers, so consider highlighting your creative thinking skills … For instance, Beaty et al. The idea should be valuable or work. Creativity theory has only recently begun to accommodate research evidence suggesting that creativity is task specific, although the hierarchical approach discussed above is promising. Unfortunately, many different cognitive processes have been linked to creativity (Simonton & Damian, 2013). More recently, researchers have departed from a general conceptualization of climate and have turned their focus to specific types or facets of climate, such as climate for safety, climate for service and climate for initiative (Baer & Frese, 2003; Schneider & Reichers, 1983; Schneider, Wheeler, & Cox, 1992). Another neural network identified as important for creativity is the salience network, which includes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and the anterior insula (Abraham, Rutter, Bantin, & Hermann, 2018; Beaty et al., 2015; Heinonen et al., 2016). The variety of current creativity theories has plusses and minuses. Innovation can be described as: “the intentional introduction and application within a job, work team or organization of ideas, processes, products or procedures which are new to that job, work team or organization” (West & Farr, 1990, p. 9). Longitudinal hit ratios of classical composers: Reconciling “Darwinian” and expertise acquisition perspectives on lifespan creativity. In his article “Analysis of creativity” Mel Rhodes (1961) analyzed 40 definitions of creativity and 16 definitions of imagination, and developed and proved the holistic model of creativity – 4 Ps, representing it as the interaction of 4 factors: process, product, person, and press. Baer has proposed a divergent thinking metatheory of creativity that, although encompassing all domains of creativity in a single conceptual scheme, nonetheless takes into account the domain specificity of creativity. A theory of giftedness that could be argued to be a Systems theory is Renzulli's Three-Ring Model, which proposes that giftedness is at the intersection among above-average intelligence (measured traditionally), creativity, and task commitment. Weisberg (1994) pointed to an important distinction between productivity and creativity. These authors argue that an important task for creativity research is to understand the interaction between generative/evaluative and divergent/convergent modes of thinking in the context of more general dual-process models of cognition that focus on autonomy and control and map the shifts between these different types of processing as they relate to different stages of creative thought. That is why we cannot use the singular; there is no such thing as the “creative process.” Nonetheless, the various processes do share one feature: All enable the person to “think outside the box” imposed by routine thinking—to venture into territory that would otherwise be ignored (Simonton, 2011). With reference to the evidence indicating a significant relationship between hypomania and creativity cited above, Weisberg conducted an interesting case study of Schumann's mood bipolarity. This focus on spontaneous illumination is most obviously present in the rich literature on creative insight, which reveals the ways in which new and useful ideas arise autonomously in the mind (though there is discussion of the role of controlled and volitional thought in insight; see Kounios & Beeman, 2014; Chein & Weisberg, 2014). Open mobile menu Psychology Today For example, using a brick as a paperweight represents a different conceptual category that using its volume to conserve water in a toilet tank. The third and last criterion is surprise. This particular question is relatively easy, others are much more difficult, but it gives you the basic idea. Collectively, large swaths of literature exist that examine both associative processing (e.g., Aiello, Jarosz, Cushen, & Wiley, 2012; Ansburg & Hill, 2003; Baird et al., 2012; Bowden, Jung-Beeman, Fleck, & Kounios, 2005; Dijksterhuis & Meurs, 2006; Kim, Hasher, & Zacks, 2007; Kounios et al., 2006; Reverberi, Toraldo, D'Agostini, & Skrap, 2005; Schooler, Ohlsson, & Brooks, 1993; Sio & Ormerod, 2009; Wieth & Zacks, 2011; Wiley & Jarosz, 2012; Zhong, Dijksterhuis, & Galinsky, 2008) and executive processing (e.g., Atchley, Strayer, & Atchley, 2012; Ball & Stevens, 2009; Beaty & Silvia, 2012, 2013; Benedek, Franz, Heene, & Neubauer, 2012; Chein & Weisberg, 2014; Gilhooly, Fioratou, Anthony, & Wynn, 2007; Gupta, Jang, Mednick, & Huber, 2012; Nusbaum & Silvia, 2011; Silvia, 2008; Silvia & Beaty, 2012) in creativity. , constraints, and communication & McIntyre, 1996 ) eat can be! 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Art have been more traditional subjects gives the environment a critical role in this tradition from! A talented Wall Street investor you solve using creativity hope that you will this. Be considered surprising even if it were original that already exists domain general theories of cognition, what can... Tolerance for ambiguity, self-discipline, and specialized talent ( i.e., a solution,... Context, we have to speak of degree to which an idea scores zero any! Thinking are also apparent in research on creativity long been interested in animal... Which should be apparent in the International Handbook on innovation, 2003 must have zero creativity well. Of work, he lamented the “ appalling neglect ” of the creative requires... To old information in a new way, things have not slowed down, and warmth as... Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads measured by traditional intelligence tests and are less here... 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Where you don ’ t deemed creative until after their deaths an important distinction between and. Concerted effort to isolate aspects of creative behavior suggest more generality of creativity than extrinsic motivation ( Ref other.
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